Our skin is often exposed to adverse factors. Sometimes she reacts unpleasant symptoms various diseases, suffers from sun and physical in later. And sometimes pigmented spots may appear on the skin — and this is also a serious problem both from an aesthetic and from a medical point of view. Let’s understand where they come from and how to deal with them.
What are pigmented spots
The appearance on the skin of small oval darkening from light brown to dark brown shades and is pigmentation of the skin. Its causes can be several phenomena, ranging from exposure to sunlight or hormonal changes and ending with skin aging and taking any drugs.
Pigmented spots are often accompanied by dryness, roughness of the skin, wrinkles, vascular malformation. Sometimes under the guise of pigmented spots can be masked malignant neoplasms of the skin. That is why before you start to fight pigmentation, it is necessary to consult with a specialist — for this, go to the consultation of a dermatologist, endocrinologist and gynecologist.
For skin color are responsible pigments: melanin, carotene, melanoid, oxyhemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin. In case of violation of their concentration or in the absence of any of the pigments on the skin pigment spots of various sizes are formed. The main role is played by melanin, it is a barrier to ultraviolet radiation. As a result of accumulation of melanin in large quantities on the skin and formed pigmented spots, they can be both congenital and acquired.
Appearance causes of pigment spots
The main cause of pigment spots is exposure to UV rays. Since UV light activates the production of melanin. In addition, they can occur at an increased level of stress, diseases of the endocrine system. In addition to these reasons, pigmented spots may appear with age. Most often, they appear on the shoulders, face, wrists. They’re called lentigo. They are difficult to disguise with makeup, so they must be treated.
How to treat pigment spots
Treatment of age spots depends on the cause. First, you should consult with a doctor, and then choose a course of treatment. If no serious diseases were found, it is possible to consider cosmetic types of getting rid of pigmentation. The first method: chemical peeling, as a result of exposure to fruit acids occurs uniform discoloration of the skin. This method is used if age spots are many and shallow.
The second option — mesotherapy. This procedure introduces an active substance deep into the tissues, resulting in lightening age spots and improving the overall condition of the skin. The third option-laser erasing, suitable for those with age spots are deep.
The easiest way to protect against age spots caused by long exposure to the sun — the use of creams with SPF-protection. In addition, to date, there are a large number of creams for the treatment of pigmentation caused by various reasons.
Lentigo is a type of chromatodermatosis. Appears excessive formation of melanin pigment in specific skin area. At the heart of this process is a violation of the synthesis of melanin in melanocytes. There are the following types of pigmentation: solar lentigo as a result of excessive UV exposure, usually manifested in old age; post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, appears after skin injury, such pigmentation is prone people with dark skin color; melanodermia (or chloasma) — pigmented spots on the face of irregular shape, localized on the cheekbones, forehead, above the upper lip, characteristic of women of childbearing age and is associated with excessive hormonal stimulation of melanocytes.
Hyperpigmentation, especially diffuse, difficult to treat. The tactics of such patients depends on the depth of the pigment and the cause. The complex therapy includes home care-the use of drugs that inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase; hydroxyacids (kojic acid, arbutin), retinol; necessarily the use of SPF-filters at any time of the year. Professional procedures in the cosmetologist’s office: laser and phototherapy, chemical peels based on retinol.